Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions.

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission is the original work of the author(s), written in their own words. None of the writing has been plagiarised.
  • All co-authors have read and approved the submitted manuscript. All co-authors will be added as authors in the 'List of contributors' step when the manuscript is submitted.
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document format. Initially the manuscript should be submitted as a document, formatted in one column with 1.5 line spacing. Once accepted for Section A or Section B, you will be requested to format the manuscript in either the Section A template or the Section B template.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines. The NJE Style Guide has been followed. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text uses the fonts and styles given in the template Styles; and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • For Section A manuscripts: you have checked that the name(s) of the author(s) does not appear anywhere on the main body of the submitted document(s) or in the filenames. This is to ensure a double-blind review process.
  • All uploaded files have been scanned for viruses and each file has been optimised in size.

Note that to be able to submit a manuscript you first need to register on the site.

The Namibian Journal of Environment is a scientific e-journal published by the Environmental Information Service, Namibia for the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, the Namibian Chamber of Environment and the Namibia University of Science and Technology.

The Namibian Journal of Environment  accepts papers containing information about any aspect of the environment in Namibia. This includes areas of ecology, agriculture, social sciences, economics, policy and law, water and energy, climate change, planning, land use, pollution, strategic and environmental assessment and related fields. It publishes primary research findings, syntheses and reviews, applied and theoretical research, field observations and the testing of hypotheses, new ideas and the exchange of opinions. Papers should be the original work of the author(s) named. Submissions should be reader-friendly to specialists and non-specialists alike and accessible to readers for whom English is not the first language. The Namibian Journal of Environment  uses UK spelling and grammar. Please see the NJE Style Guide for help in this regard.

There is no charge for publishing in Namibian Journal of Environment.

Editorial process:

Section A papers are published online on the Namibian Journal of Environment  website after they have been refereed or peer-reviewed and accepted by the editor. An editorial committee assists the editor in screening papers for publication.  Submissions to the Namibian Journal of Environment should be in the prescribed format, otherwise they will not be considered for publication.  Section B submissions will be reviewed by the journal editor or editorial committee. All submissions, whether formal papers, field notes, book reviews or other must be written in correct UK English. The journal editor will make minor corrections to spelling and grammar, but will not rewrite poor English nor correct careless mistakes.  Neither is it the task of the reviewers to correct poor English.  All submissions should be sent to an English editor before submission.  A list of potential English editors and their rates can be obtained from the journal editor.  Poorly written articles will be returned to the authors for improvement before they are sent out for review.

Submission of a manuscript implies that it is the original work of the author(s) and is not being submitted to any other publication.

Formatting: All submissions should be submitted  FIRST as Word documents, one column, 1.5 line spacing. Once the paper has been reviewed and corrected and is ready for final publication, authors will be requested to use the appropriate template for Section A or Section B.  Look at papers on the website to see the style that is followed. Each paragraph should start flush left (no tabs or indents) and paragraphs must be separated by a line space. Authors are requested to try to use the heading formats supplied in the template and to refer to published papers for more guidance on style and formatting conventions. Double quotations are used, with single quotations to highlight a quote within a quote.

Photos, drawings, graphs and tables: Images should be clear and of high quality and provided with clear, descriptive captions in italics below the image, numbered Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. (Photos, drawings, graphs, charts should be treated as figures.) If the caption contains a scientific name, this name reverts from italics back to normal font.  Images must form part of the "suggested" layout of the submitted paper and in jpg format. All images must also be submitted as separate files with the paper. Colour and line drawings should be scanned and saved at 300 dpi and submitted as separate jpg files. If tables and histograms (with captions) form part of the document, they should also be submitted separately as Excel (.xls) files. Table captions should be numbered Table 1, Table 2, etc. and should come above the table. The descriptions for both figures and tables should be sufficiently detailed that the figure or table can "stand alone", i.e. make sense to a reader without the reader having to refer to the text. 

Names of organisms studied: The author(s) may choose whether to use scientific or common names for their study organisms in the paper.  Whichever is chosen, this format must be retained throughout (do not jump from common to scientific and back again).  Where common names are used, the scientific name must be given (in brackets or between commas) in the title and at the first mention in the text, E.g. Lions, Panthera leo, … or lions (Panthera leo).  Likewise, where scientific names of animals are used, the common name must be given in brackets or between commas (except for invertebrates for which there is no common name. Here is it advisable to give the reader a clue as to what group it belongs). It is not obligatory to give common names for plants (since some have more than one generally accepted name, and many do not have any), but this may be done if the author wishes (highly recommended, especially for Section B papers), especially if the plant is well-known by its common name but not well-known by its scientific name, e.g. mopane.

Scientific names of species should be typed in italics, in full the first time mentioned (i.e. with subspecies or variety, if applicable. Subspecies names of animals may follow on directly from the species, e.g. Oryx gazella gazella [NB watch out for autocorrect in Word! It will change gazella to gazelle and mucronata to mucronate, etc.]. For plants, you need to specify whether it is a subspecies or a variety, e.g.  Acacia mellifera subsp. detinens or Croton gratissimus var. gratissimus. Please note that the abbreviations subsp. and var. are followed by full stops and are NOT typed in italics. It is not necessary to give authority names. Family names are also NOT typed in italics. 

For subsequent mention of the species, the genus may be abbreviated to the first letter, provided that it is not ambiguous, as in the case where a number of genera with the same first letter are being mentioned, e.g. A. erioloba and A. anthelmintica refer to different genera. Where more than one member of a genus is referred to one after the other at first mention, the genus name may be abbreviated, e.g. Acacia erioloba, A. galpini, A. hereroensis. The subsp. and var. names may also be dropped, provided that only one subsp. or var. is referred to in the entire paper. It is important to note that one may not begin a sentence with an abbreviation – see style guide. In this case the scientific name must be written in full.

Common names should be followed by the scientific names in italics (in parentheses or between commas, e.g. African lion, Panthera leo, are widespread) when used the first time in the text. Common names of specific birds should start with capital letters, e.g. Black-breasted Snake-eagle. However, it is snake-eagles in general, with small letters. Common names of other animals and plants may be written with or without a capital letter, at the discretion of the author(s) as long as it is done consistently. Plants or animals named after people or places should start with a capital letter e.g. Anchietae’s python or Kaoko corkwood. Pythons or corkwoods in general should be written with small letters. For example, African elephant, but elephant in general.  Please refrain from using a capital letter for well-known animals with simple names, e.g. lion, elephant, warthog. It is also not necessary to give scientific names to domestic animals e.g. cow, dog (unless this is your study animal e.g. The effect of dogs (Canis familiaris) on the breeding of ground-nesting birds).

Spelling of both common and scientific names should be checked very carefully by the author(s) prior to submission, using a checklist or field guide published by a reputable institution or author (for plants you can use this: A checklist of Namibian indigenous and naturalised plants; for animals go to and click on the relevant photo guide).

Acronyms and abbreviations should be defined in parentheses the first time they are used in the text. Thereafter the short form is sufficient.

Metric units with the decimal point (not comma) should be used in the text. Thousands should be separated by a comma, not a space.

Dates in the text should be in the long, UK form – 1 August 2010 – and time given in the 24-hr format – 16h45. There should be one space between sentences, and one space between a digit and a unit term (e.g. 5 kg, 5 cm). No space before % and ˚C, so 45˚C and 64%. The ampersand "&" may not be used except in the references or in parentheses. Ranges should be indicated with a hyphen and no spaces, e.g. 1985-2001, except in situations such as the "2007/08 rainfall year". Dimensions need a space between, e.g. 23 x 8 x 9 cm. No spaces in statistical notation, e.g. p<0.01, r2=0.07, n=99 (small n not capital).

Coordinates: Use decimal degrees (23.2075S, 18.4338E) or degrees and decimal minutes (23°12.45'S, 18°26.03'E). 

Use of apostrophe: This denotes possession or omission of letters. It is NOT used in forming the plural form of words e.g. 1980s, photos, taxis.

In-text citation: Reference must be made to the source of any information that was not recorded during the course of the research undertaken, either as part of the sentence e.g. Jones (2017) found that… or in parentheses e.g. Snakes have legs (Jones 2017).  Multiple citations should be listed chronologically, separated by a comma (e.g. Smith & Shilongo 2000, Jones 2013, Amwaama 2017).  For joint authors, '&' should be used only in parentheses. In the text the word “and” should be used. More than two authors should be given as the first author followed by et al. e.g. (Shilongo et al. 1934).  Verbal and other informal communications should be given as e.g. Jones (pers. com. 2017) or (Jones pers. com. 2017). The person cited and their affiliation must be included in the Acknowledgements section.

References should be added alphabetically at the end of the paper. Footnotes should not be used as a form of referencing. All references must be formatted following the format of Mammal Review. Use the following guidelines (source:

All cited sources should be listed, ordered alphabetically by first author. No uncited sources should be included.  For papers with three or more authors, the first name and ‘et al.’ should be used in the text; give all the authors in the References, unless there are more than 10 authors, in which case give the first six and abbreviate the rest with 'et al.' Where more than one reference by the same author(s) appeared in the same year, use '2009a, b' in both text and References, and allocate letters according to the order of listing in the References. In the reference list, titles of periodicals/journals should be given in full, in italics. Titles of papers and books cited must be given, together with volume number and full pagination for papers, and the publisher and city and country of publication for books. Book titles should be in italics. All significant words in book and journal titles should capitalised, including reports and theses.  Titles of papers in journals or chapters in books should use sentence case. Books or papers without an author (i.e. a person responsible for writing the text) should be cited as “Anonymous”. Titles in languages not using Roman script may be given in translation or transliteration. Authors are asked to check the reference list against their text to ensure that all papers cited are included and that dates and spellings are consistent. Authors are responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the references quoted. Style should be as follows:

Anonymous (2006) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Balodis M (1995) Beavers in Latvia. In: Ermala A, Lahti S (eds) Proceedings of the Third Nordic Beaver Symposium, 6–9. Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

Blake S, Deem SL, Strindberg S, Maisels F, Momont L, Isia I-B, Douglas-Hamilton I, Karesh WB, Kock MD (2008) Roadless wilderness area determines forest elephant movements in the Congo Basin. PLoS ONE 3: e3546.

Collen P (1997) Review of the Potential Impact of Reintroducing European Beaver Castor fiber L. on the Ecology and Movement of Native Fish in Scotland. Review 86, Scottish Natural Heritage, Perth, UK.

Fa JE, Seymour S, Dupain J, Amin R, Albrechtsen L, Macdonald D (2006) Getting to grips with the magnitude of exploitation: bushmeat in the Cross-Sanaga rivers region, Nigeria and Cameroon.  Biological Conservation 129: 497-510.

Fitch WT, Hauser MD (2003) Unpacking 'honesty': vertebrate vocal production and the evolution of acoustic signals. In: Simmons AM, Popper AN, Fay RR (eds) Acoustic Communication, 65-137. Springer Verlag, New York, USA.

Harris S, Yalden DW (eds; 2008) Mammals of the British Isles: Handbook, 4th ed.  Mammal Society, Southampton, UK.

Hartman G (1994) Ecological Studies of a Reintroduced Beaver Castor fiber Population. PhD thesis, Swedish University for Agricultural Sciences,Uppsala, Sweden.

Minnemeyer S (2002) An Analysis of Access into Central Africa’s Rainforest. World Forest Watch Report. World Resources Institute.

Schipper J, Chanson JS, Chiozza F, Cox NA, Hoffmann M, Katariya V et al. (2008) The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge. Science 322: 225-230.

If in doubt, please consult the editor.

Enquiries and submissions for publication: All enquiries and submissions should be addressed to the Editor:

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.